Some of the best lessons and improvements in policing can come from critical incident or after-action reviews (AARs), particularly when they are completed with independent experts in a way that emphasizes learning and improvement rather than responsibility or fault. 

The Knowledge Lab has selected AARs that are particularly relevant to the Lab's work and constitutional policing. The library will continue to be updated and expanded to include new and relevant reports. For a complete library of after-action reviews, please visit the National Policing Institute's After-Action Review Library.

First Amendment assembly and response

Police response to First Amendment assemblies is a core issue in constitutional policing. To protect the first amendment rights of the public during these events, the following after-action review recommendations can be reviewed. Additional information may be needed to implement these recommendations. For assistance in implementing or enhancing practices related to first amendment assembly response, contact the Knowledge Lab.

A Crisis of Trust: A National Policing Institute Report to the Los Angeles Board of Police Commissioners on the Los Angeles Police Department Response to First Amendment Assemblies and Protests Occurring May 27 – June 7, 2020

Los Angeles, CA

Research Evaluation of the City of Columbus’ Response to the 2020 Summer Protests

Columbus, OH

Preparing for and Responding to Mass Demonstrations and Counter-Demonstrations in Portland, Oregon

Portland, OR

2017 Presidential Inauguration First Amendment Independent Law Enforcement Review

Washington, DC

Advancing Charlotte: A National Policing Institute Assessment of the Charlotte-Mecklenburg Police Department Response to the September 2016 Demonstrations

Charlotte, NC

city of minneapolis

An After-Action Review of City Agencies’ Responses to Activities Directly Following George Floyd’s Death on May 25, 2020

Minneapolis, MN

Maintaining First Amendment Rights and Public Safety in North Minneapolis: An After-Action Assessment of the Police Response to Protests, Demonstrations, and Occupation of the Minneapolis Police Department’s Fourth Precinct

Minneapolis, MN

Independent Review of the 2017 Protest Events in Charlottesville Virginia

Charlottesville, VA

Critical Incidents and Use of Force

Hate crime response

Combating hate crimes is one of the Department of Justice’s highest priorities. The after-action recommendations can be reviewed in these reports. Additional information may be needed to implement these recommendations; contact the Knowledge Lab for assistance in enhancing or establishing programs or policies around hate crime response.

After-Action Review of the Orlando Fire Department Response to the Attack at Pulse Nightclub

Orlando, FL

Rescue, Response, and Resilience: A Critical Incident Review of the Orlando Public Safety Response to the Attack on the Pulse Nightclub

Orlando, FL

Violent crime response

Responses to critical incidents receive a lot of scrutiny during and after the incident’s resolution. Agencies must have comprehensive plans and training to be prepared. The following reviews of previous incidents are an essential source of knowledge that agencies can utilize. Additional information may be needed to enhance or implement critical incident response plans, and for further assistance, contact the Knowledge Lab.

A Heist Gone Bad: A National Policing Institute Critical Incident Review of the Stockton Police Response to the Bank Of The West Robbery And Hostage-Taking

Stockton, CA